Views: 1 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2023-08-23 Origin: Site
My country's "the fourteenth five-year plan for national economic and social development and the outline of long-term goals in 2035" proposes to develop prefabricated buildings and steel structure houses. The ministry of housing and urban-rural development clearly promotes prefabricated steel structure houses and upgrades steel structure houses. Proportion in future housing. The prefabricated steel structure residence has the advantages of environmental protection and energy saving, green recycling, excellent wind and earthquake resistance, light weight and high strength, and fast construction speed, which meets the needs of the country to develop green economy and circular economy.
1. Development of prefabricated steel structure housing
Although all walks of life in our country have been making continuous efforts to promote the development of prefabricated steel structure houses in recent years, due to the late start of my country's prefabricated steel structure houses, there is still a lot of room for improvement in the development of prefabricated steel structure houses. The development speed of structural housing, drawing on the development of prefabricated steel structure housing in developed countries, has important reference value.
1>. The development of prefabricated steel structure houses in foreign countries
The steel structure housing industry chain in the united states is complete, and the market is relatively complete. The steel structure housing in the united states mainly includes light steel structure, steel frame structure, steel frame and support structure, and steel frame mixed structure. The assembly process is scientific and reasonable, and the construction efficiency is high. Steel structure accessories strong versatility and interchangeability, the design and construction focus on "people-oriented", the steel structure residence has a high degree of comfort, and at the same time pays attention to low-carbon, energy-saving, green and environmental protection. As early as the late 1940s, the u.S. Government began to guide the construction of prefabricated houses, and in the 1960s, it encouraged the use of light and high-strength materials such as steel, aluminum, and wood in prefabricated houses, and moved towards integration, standardization and scale. Development. In 2000, the u.S. Government clarified the green and sustainable development standards for prefabricated steel structure houses, guided the transformation and upgrading of prefabricated steel structure houses in a green direction, and provided preferential loans and taxes.
2>. Development status of prefabricated steel structure housing in my country
The development history of steel structure housing in my country is not short, but the promotion and development are relatively slow. The earliest steel structure residence in my country was the eight-story steel structure residence in beicai, shanghai in 1994. In 2011, the ministry of housing and urban-rural development organized and declared the "double hundred" demonstration science and technology plan for green buildings and low-energy buildings. In 2013, the "twelfth five-year plan" was issued. "green building and green ecological city development plan", the plan clearly "accelerates the formation of industrialized building systems such as prefabricated concrete and steel structures" to meet the requirements of green economic development.
2. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of prefabricated steel structure houses
Using the SWOT analysis method to analyze the internal advantages and disadvantages of prefabricated steel structure houses, and the external development opportunities and challenges they face, through the analysis, it provides effective strategies for the development of prefabricated steel structure houses in my country.
1>. Internal advantages
First, prefabricated steel structure houses have the advantages of pollution reduction, energy saving and synergy. In terms of pollution reduction, the prefabricated steel structure and accessories can be prefabricated in the factory and then installed on site, which can greatly reduce construction waste, noise generated by construction operations and on-site dust and other environmental pollution; in terms of energy saving, the energy consumption of steel structure buildings Energy consumption is lower than that of concrete buildings. At the same time, steel structures are easy to reinforce, rebuild, and demolish, and can be recycled and reused. Through recycling, a large amount of resources can be saved, and they can also be converted into steel strategic reserves. In terms of synergies, steel structures have a high degree of industrial production , Intelligent manufacturing makes it possible to standardize, program-control, and automate steel structures, thereby speeding up the construction progress, shortening the construction period, and improving production efficiency.
Second, the steel frame structure has superior architectural performance. Steel structure residences have strong ductility, wind resistance and earthquake resistance, and have a high ability to resist typhoons.
The third is to improve space utilization. The steel structure residence can be made into a large bay structure, which can increase the usable area by 6% to 8% compared with the reinforced concrete structure. Under the same area, the steel structure occupies a relatively small area. Resources are relatively scarce. In big cities, especially densely populated cities, steel structure residences can reduce the occupied area, and the less occupied land area can be used for greening or building community public leisure and entertainment venues, thereby improving the living environment and building a "beautiful home" .
2>. Internal disadvantages
The first is technical constraints. my country's prefabricated steel structure housing started late, and the technology is immature. The thermal conductivity of steel structures is large, and problems such as building thermal bridges are more prominent. The steel structure becomes soft when heated at high temperature and is not fire-resistant. The high assembly and excellent thermal insulation and fire-resistant performance of the fabricated steel structure exterior wall panels need further breakthroughs. At the same time, the fabricated steel structure residential buildings are waterproof, energy-saving, corrosion-resistant, and Issues such as infiltration, sound insulation, and cracking of the wall panels all require further study.
Secondly, the current cost of construction is relatively high. At present, the cost of prefabricated steel structure housing is slightly higher than that of concrete structure, and the cost per square meter is about 200-500 yuan higher. It is difficult for steel structure housing to meet the national standard requirements for key indicators such as external wall panels with reasonable prices such as thermal insulation, fire resistance, and heat insulation. The cost of exterior wall panels that can meet the national standard is too high, which hinders the further promotion and use of steel structure houses.
Again, there is a lack of talent. In the process of rapid development of my country's steel structure housing, there will be more and more demand for senior talents, not only senior management talents with an international perspective, but also interdisciplinary professionals and R&D talents with intelligent construction and construction expertise. The cultivation of these high-level talents takes time. In addition to the lack of high-level talents, there is also a relative shortage of construction personnel. The younger generation is willing to engage in the construction industry, and fewer and fewer people are willing to engage in the construction industry. The main group of construction workers in the older generation is migrant workers, who lack the professionalism required for steel structure housing.
3>. External opportunities
One is the strong support of national policies. At the policy level, the state strongly supports the development of prefabricated steel structure buildings. The "14th five-year plan" clearly proposes "developing intelligent construction, promoting prefabricated buildings and steel structure residences", and deploying pilot steel structure prefabricated residences. Sort out the steel structure building technology system and increase promotion and application publicity, organize the selection of prefabricated building demonstration projects, establish and improve a new model of quality and safety supervision of prefabricated construction projects, and help the promotion and application of steel structure buildings. Under the guidance of national policies, steel structure residences will usher in better development opportunities.
Second, the application prospects of steel structure houses are broad. In developed countries, steel structure buildings account for more than 40% of the total construction volume. In my country, steel structure buildings account for only 5%-7%, and steel structure residences account for only about 1%. Steel structure buildings still have huge market development space. The broad application prospects of steel structure housing have attracted the attention of upstream and downstream enterprises such as steel companies, steel structure companies, and real estate companies to the steel structure construction market. In 2011, baosteel group took the lead in establishing the technological innovation strategic alliance of prefabricated civil steel structure construction industry, covering the entire industrial chain of technology, research and development, construction, prefabricated parts production, and real estate development. The common and key technical bottlenecks of the steel structure civil construction industry will accelerate the development and application of steel and steel structure products in the construction field.
The third is that my country has the industrial base to vigorously develop steel structure housing. My country is the largest country in steel production. In 2021, the crude steel production will be 1.033 billion tons, accounting for more than 50% of the world's steel production. The rapid development of the steel industry, the industrialization technology of steel enterprises and the well-trained workforce of steel enterprises have laid a solid foundation for the development of the steel structure industry. At the beginning of 2022, the ministry of industry and information technology, the development and reform commission, and the ministry of ecology and environment jointly issued the "guiding opinions on promoting the high-quality development of the iron and steel industry", which will "promote green and low-carbon buildings, carry out pilot projects for the construction of steel structure residences and farm houses, and optimize steel structure building standards. One of the important tasks is to promote the application of steel structures in residential buildings.
Fourth, the scale and technical level of my country's steel structure market have reached the international leading level. Statistics from the China Steel Structure Association show that during the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, the output of steel structures increased from 51 million tons to 89 million tons. It accounts for 9.4% of crude steel output. According to the forecast of China Steel Structure Association, by the end of 2025, the national steel structure consumption target will reach about 140 million tons, accounting for more than 15% of the national crude steel output; by 2035, my country's steel structure output will reach more than 200 million tons per year, accounting for The output ratio is above 25%. Steel structure companies are located in all provinces and municipalities directly under the central government, and their industrial scale ranks among the top in the world; It was successfully completed within 10 days, which shows that my country's steel structure technology level has entered the world's advanced ranks.
4>. External threats
First, the market's acceptance of steel structure residences and residents' awareness of steel structure residences need to be improved. On the one hand, my country's steel structure housing is still in the pilot demonstration stage, and there is still a distance from large-scale market application and promotion. The market's acceptance of steel structures has yet to be tested; on the other hand, residents' acceptance of steel structure housing is relatively low. At present, the residential structure in our country is mainly reinforced concrete, and the residents have insufficient understanding of steel structure housing. The results of the survey of rural residents in henan show that rural residents have cognitive obstacles to the quality and safety of prefabricated steel structure houses, and peasant residents do not have a high acceptance of steel structure houses.
The second is that young people in the "z era" have high requirements for housing. "z generation" young people refer to the new generation of people born after 1995. This group is the main group of people who buy houses. They have different housing requirements from the older generation. The younger generation has higher requirements for housing performance, quality, environmental protection, living environment, and location advantages. People born in the 1970s and 1980s who have housing have higher requirements for their neighbors in the community, and their housing needs are more comfortable, environmentally friendly, and beautiful. Therefore, steel structure residences must be able to meet the quality requirements of beauty, durability, living comfort, safety, green health, etc., in order to be favored by the market.
The third is insufficient coordination of the upstream and downstream industry chains. Steel companies, real estate companies, steel structure companies, and raw material companies lack coordination and cooperation with each other, and it is difficult to form a highly compatible relationship in design, research and development, manufacturing, processing, assembly and construction in the short term. Although the government has vigorously advocated the construction of steel structure houses, a large number of steel structure construction companies have emerged that design and build prefabricated steel structure houses, such as yuanda group and china construction group, but overall, the scale of these companies is still small. Small, the market has not yet formed a leading steel structure enterprise capable of integrating upstream and downstream industrial chains, and the large-scale market system needs to be further improved.
3. Development trend of prefabricated steel structure housing
1>. The promotion and application of prefabricated steel structure houses will become a future trend
Under the dual-carbon background of "carbon peak and carbon neutrality", traditional concrete houses with high energy consumption and high pollution will be replaced by green, environmentally friendly and energy-saving steel structure houses, and the requirements for sustainable development of the ecological environment will make the "green building" "the prefabricated steel structure residences have developed rapidly, the importance of prefabricated steel structure residences will become increasingly prominent, and the market share will also increase steadily. The industrial production of prefabricated steel structure residences, full life cycle carbon emissions, and circular economy research will become an important trend in future development.
2>. Special steel research and technological breakthroughs will become a trend
The application of fire-resistant and corrosion-resistant special steel in steel structure housing can greatly improve the fire and corrosion resistance of the house and the ability to resist high temperature in extreme environments. However, at present, the price of special steel is relatively high, and it cannot be widely used. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen research and technological breakthroughs in thermal insulation, fire and flame resistance, waterproof and corrosion resistance, and wind and earthquake resistance of steel structures, to overcome construction and wall panel supporting technologies, to develop special steel products with relatively reasonable prices and high quality, and to develop integrated design and production. The integration of installation, decoration, comfort, environmental protection, thermal insulation and beautiful facade of steel structure residences, meeting the residents' requirements for improved housing is the main development direction in the future.
3>. Intelligent, digital, and platform-based intelligent construction of prefabricated steel structure houses
New-generation technologies such as intelligence, digitalization, networking, and platformization play an important role in the entire life cycle of prefabricated steel structures. For example, shenzhen city has carried out building artificial intelligence drawing inspections, which has greatly improved the quality of inspections. The application of artificial intelligence and big data technologies such as industrial robots and intelligent assembly in construction can reduce a large number of construction personnel and improve the modernization level of enterprises. For example, the full life cycle application of bim technology in prefabricated steel structure houses has greatly improved the level of construction management informatization has been improved. Technologies such as intelligence, digitization, and platformization with steel structures as the main body will provide new development momentum for the construction industry.
4>. Reconstruct the entire industrial chain system of steel, steel structure, and real estate industries
The upstream and downstream enterprises of prefabricated steel structure housing coordinate and interact, build a unified market, eliminate internal barriers, realize the customization of steel structure housing products, industrialize production, form a new model of the construction industry chain, and maximize the overall benefit. At present, the industrial concentration of my country's steel structure enterprises is not high. Under the guidance of the government, strong steel structure enterprises will enter the prefabricated housing market, integrate the upstream and downstream industrial chains, and form an industrial structure with advantages in technology research and development, large-scale production, and independent innovation. Leading enterprises with advantages, capital advantages and brand advantages promote the technological upgrading and high-quality development of steel structure housing.
To sum up, the prefabricated steel structure residence will be widely promoted and applied in the future due to its advantages of environmental protection and energy saving, green recycling, excellent wind and earthquake resistance, light weight and high strength, and fast construction speed. In the process of promotion and application, prefabricated steel structure housing will continue to innovate and develop, and new processes, new technologies, new materials, artificial intelligence, digital technology, etc. Will be continuously applied to engineering construction. Government departments, industry associations and enterprises attach great importance to the development and promotion of steel structure housing. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously improve relevant design, production specifications and standard requirements, strengthen the promotion of the advantages of steel structure housing and the cultivation of talents, and guide the transformation of housing models. Upstream and downstream enterprises must coordinate and cooperate to reconstruct the entire industrial chain system, promote the development of steel structure housing, and meet the needs of social green and low-carbon economic development.
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